Истифодаи нақлиёти барқӣ


The leader of the nation, the President of the Republic of Tajikistan, Mr. Emomali Rahmon, in his message to the Supreme Assembly of the Republic of Tajikistan on December 21, 2021, stated that "... in order to adapt the national economy to climate change, protect the environment and improve the situation environment of the country, the import of electric vehicles into the country, that is, electric cars, electric buses, trolleybuses and the like, should be completely exempted from tax and customs payments. In this regard, it is necessary for the Government of the country to take steps to gradually create the infrastructure and other necessary conditions for the use of such vehicles on the territory of the country."

Implementation of this instruction was carried out by the Ministry of Transport of the Republic of Tajikistan with the involvement of specialists from relevant ministries and agencies, including the Technical University of Tajikistan named after Academician M.S. Оsimi, the project "Electric transport development program in the Republic of Tajikistan for 2023-2028" was developed.

The program for the development of electric transport in the Republic of Tajikistan for the years 2023-2028 (hereinafter referred to as the Program) was approved according to the decision of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan (from October 31, 2022, No. 532). The program is aimed at increasing the competitiveness of the national economy, adapting it to climate change, protecting the environment and improving the country's ecological situation, achieving the goals of sustainable development, including combating climate change, ensuring a healthy lifestyle and promoting well-being for all. , to provide universal access to cheap, reliable, stable and modern energy sources for all, to ensure the transition to rational forms of consumption and production announced by the General Assembly of the United Nations.

One of the most important advantages is the reduction of the negative impact of automobile transport on the environment and the reduction of dependence on oil and gas imports. Electric transport can be called relatively clean in terms of the environment, if the energy reserve in it is obtained from renewable energy sources. If the electric vehicle uses energy from other sources of electric energy that burn fuel (coal, gas, petroleum, etc.), its environmental benefits will not be significant.

Fortunately, as His Excellency, Founder of National Peace and Unity, Leader of the Nation Emomali Rahmon noted in his speech at the meeting with the builders of the Rogun hydropower plant [1] (13.07.2022): "...Tajikistan has great hydropower resources, which is one of the main sources of renewable energy and production of "green energy". In our country, 98 percent of electricity is produced using water resources, and Tajikistan is the sixth leading country in the world in terms of the percentage of "green energy" production. That is, the use of electric vehicles in our country will not only reduce the dependence on the import of energy carriers (oil and gas fuel), but also have a positive effect on the environmental condition of the environment, especially in large cities.

In general, what is the difference between a conventional car and an electric car?

Paragraph 3 of the Road Traffic Rules states that "... - motor vehicle - a mechanical vehicle without wheels, which is used to transport people or cargo on the roads or to tow vehicles on the roads, which are used to transport people or are used. Quadricycles (motorcycles) - four-wheeled mechanical vehicles with a vehicle-type control system and an equipped weight of no more than 550 kg are equal to cars. On the other hand, a car is a non-rail mechanical vehicle that has a private engine and usually has at least four wheels. In some cases, three-wheeled vehicles whose net mass exceeds 400 kg are also considered automobiles.

That is, an electric car is also a type of vehicle, the only difference is in the type or type of engine, that is, the source of mechanical energy. Its energy efficiency is embodied in the use of a mechanical energy source, that is, in most electric cars, the source of mechanical energy is an electric motor. Efficiency is determined by the coefficient of useful work, that is, how well the engine converts some form of energy into mechanical work. The efficiency of modern diesel car engines is on average 42%, and the gasoline internal combustion engine is no more than 30%. But the efficiency of electric motors for electric cars is more than 90% (Tesla model S is about 95%). That is, electric motors are at least twice as efficient.


If electric cars are efficient, why weren't they more popular?

The use of electric energy in motor vehicles is nothing new. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, cars with electric and steam engines were competitive with internal combustion gasoline engines according to some parameters. In 1900, about 40% of automobiles in the US were powered by steam, 38% by electricity, and 22% by gasoline. The electric car was invented before the car with an internal combustion engine (44 years ago). The first electric car in the form of a cart with an electric motor was made in 1841. In 1910, up to 70,000 electric cars operated as taxis in New York. Also, at the beginning of the 20th century, electric trucks and electric omnibuses (electric buses) were also popular. The first hybrid car was built in 1899 by Ferdinand Porsche. The reason for the lack of widespread development of electric vehicles was the low capacity of batteries and the lack of competition with cars with internal combustion engines.

With the increase in environmental requirements and the increase in the price of petroleum products, the development of battery production technology and the production of electric energy through fuel cells (cells) from hydrogen in the car itself, electric cars are regaining their position. They are mainly in the form of hybrid vehicles, that is, an internal combustion engine and an electric motor are installed in the vehicle, and they work alternately or together depending on the demand. Also, the automotive industry is currently producing electric cars that run on electricity alone. Examples of such electric cars are Kia Naimo, Citroen Czero, Nissan NV200, Mercedes Electric eVito Taxi, Renault Fluence Z.E., Tesla Roadster, etc. The problem with electric cars is mainly related to energy storage. If in conventional cars energy is stored in the form of fuel (gas, gasoline and diesel) in a storage tank or cylinders, in electric cars it is stored in batteries or hydrogen storage cylinders.

How many groups can electric cars be divided into?

As already mentioned, an electric vehicle is a type of vehicle with one or more electric motors that are powered by an independent source of electrical energy (batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, etc.) or powered by a hybrid (electric motor with an internal combustion engine) mechanical source. energy. Basically, modern electric vehicles can be conditionally divided into four groups:

  • A hybrid vehicle (HEV) that uses a battery-powered electric motor and an internal combustion engine. The range of such battery-powered vehicles is very limited, and it is not possible to charge them from an external power source.
    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that combine the operation of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine, as well as the ability to charge the battery from an external electrical network and travel long distances. through a source of electrical energy (battery).
  • Battery electric vehicles (BEV - Battery electric vehicle), in which the battery is the only source of electrical energy, and it is charged only from an external electrical network and driven by an electric motor.
  • Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV - Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle). In such vehicles, a different method is used to increase the efficiency of using hydrogen in motor vehicles - fuel cells. The principle of operation of fuel cells is based on an electrochemical reaction, as a result of which hydrogen combines with oxygen in the air, an electric current is formed, which is used as a source of electrical energy to drive the electric motors of the vehicle. It should be noted that in this case a higher fuel energy conversion efficiency (up to 60%) is obtained, which is much higher than that of conventional internal combustion engines (20% - 35%).


 Mamadamon Abdullo

e-mail: mamadamonabdullo@ttu.tj

whatsapp: +992934257775

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